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Proper feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse and in the open field

Proper feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse and in the open field


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When feeding tomatoes, care must be taken not to overfeed them with too much nitrogen, otherwise the seedlings will become "fatty" and will not form fruits. In order to feed tomatoes, various types can be used: when grown in a greenhouse, open ground, yeast, so that the seedlings are plump, which must be placed after planting and in the hole when digging up the ground for tomatoes.

How to fertilize tomatoes

The first feeding of seedlings

15 days after sowing seeds, when the first shoots begin to appear, add 1 teaspoon of nitrophoska and 1 teaspoon of nitroammophoska in 1 liter of water and water the seedlings.

How to fertilize in the future at home

Count down 25 days after sowing seeds. In 1 liter of water, add a little less than a teaspoon of nitrophosphate and a little less than a teaspoon of potassium permanganate, and another half of a teaspoon of nitroammophoska. Water the seedlings.

Apply this fertilizer every 10 days before planting.

Feeding after a dive

2 weeks after the pick, add 1 tbsp. spoon potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. a spoonful of granular superphosphate in a ten-liter bucket of water. Water the seedlings.

How to feed for growth

Mix 2 parts bird droppings with 1 part of water, cover the container with a lid, Leave for 2-3 days. Then dilute the infusion with water in a ratio of 1:10.

Types of tomato additives

Mineral fertilizers

Top dressing is of 2 types:

  • Organic - these are the compounds that plants need, they are formed from the decomposition of plants and from the waste products of animals.
  • Mineral —– they are made without using organics.

Mineral feeding of tomatoes can be of 2 types: simple (they include 1 component), complex (they contain 2, 3 or more components). Simple mineral dressings for tomatoes are those that consist of any one macronutrient or micronutrient.

Macronutrient is nitrogen or phosphorus, potassium. And trace elements are substances that are required for the normal growth of tomato bushes - magnesium, calcium, zinc, etc.

  • Magnesium improves the intensity of photosynthesis and promotes the formation of chlorophyll. With its deficiency, chlorosis is visible on the leaves, that is, they turn yellow. Magnesium nitrate is used, they are sprayed with bushes, dissolving 5 g of the substance in a ten-liter bucket of water.
  • Zinc promotes protein, carbohydrate, phosphorus metabolism in plants. With its lack, grayish-bronze specks appear on the leaves. For feeding, they take zinc sulfate, they are sprayed with plants, diluting 5 g in a ten-liter bucket of water.
  • Calcium - use calcium nitrate, spraying tomatoes, pouring 5 g in 10 liters of water.
  • Molybdenum improves phosphorus, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism. With a lack of molybdenum, the very first true leaves turn yellow, their edges curl. Those leaves that grow back become speckled. They buy ammonium molybdate, add 2 g to 10 liters of water, pour the solution under the roots, trying not to get on the leaves.
  • Sulfur - acquire magnesium sulfate, spray the bushes, pouring 10 g of water into 10 liters of water.
  • Boron - tomato flowers are sprayed with boric acid solution so that they tie, 5 g is taken for 10 liters of water.
  • Manganese - with a deficiency of the element, yellowing of the leaf plate is visible against the background of dark green veins. They buy manganese sulfate, spray the bushes, dissolving 5 g in 10 liters of water.
  • Copper - use copper sulfate, making a solution of 2 g of the substance and a ten-liter bucket of water.
  • Iron, with a deficiency of the element, the bases of the leaves turn yellow. Take ferrous sulfate, diluting 5 g in 10 liters of water.
  • Chlorine - is used quite rarely, since the substance inhibits the bushes. There is a lot of chlorine in saline soils, but not enough in leached soils. The chlorine limit in the soil of tomato greenhouses is 0.02% on air-dry soil. With a lack of chlorine, chlorosis appears on young leaves, they wither. With a greater chlorine deficiency, the leaves become bronze. The bushes are sprayed with potassium chloride, diluting 5 g in 10 liters of water.

Phosphoric

  • Monophosphate (simple superphosphate) is a grayish powder, it loses somewhat in efficiency to new fertilizers, but since it is cheap, it is used quite often.
  • Granular superphosphate... It is made from monophosphate, moisturized and rolled into granules.
  • Double... It contains calcium monophosphate, which is highly soluble in water. When feeding tomatoes, it is brought in half as much as simple superphosphate.

With a lack of phosphorus, the stems and leaves become purple.

Potash

Potassium tomatoes consume a little, especially he necessary for fruiting, and potassium is also required at the stage of seedling growth in order to form strong, and not thin stems. Potassium promotes the formation of carbohydrates, increases the plant's immunity to diseases, frost, and heat.

The plant becomes stronger, the taste of tomatoes improves, the roots grow more intensively. As the stems harden, the tops become thick and do not lodge. If the plants do not have enough potassium, then the young leaves become curly if they are not strengthened in time and fertilizer is not applied.

Use potash fertilizers - potassium chloride and potassium sulfate (it is used more often, since there is no chlorine in it, and an excess of chlorine inhibits the bushes). When feeding tomatoes, 40 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m2 are poured into the ground. Top dressing increases the number of tomatoes that grow on the bushes and protects the plants from wilting.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen contributes intensive growth of greenery by the bushes. If the lower leaves of the seedlings turn yellow and fall off, this is due to a lack of nitrogen. It is best to use nitrogen if the seedlings have elongated, pale and thin stems.

Nitrogen is also required for the formation of a larger number of ovaries. Because of this, nitrogen is introduced twice a season - a week after planting the seedlings and at the beginning of the formation of ovaries.

If the seedlings have received an excess of nitrogen, then the young leaves will curl up and become very fragile.

In August, nitrogen is no longer worth using, since the bushes do not need to build up green mass, but throw all their strength into pouring the fruits. Mineral fertilizers with nitrogen content - ammonium sulfate, carbamide, ammonium nitrate... But do not forget that fertilizing with nitrogen makes the soil more acidic, so you need to add lime with them.

Complex

Ammophos

    1. , it contains nitrogen and phosphorus, is sold in the form of granules. The advantage of this fertilizer is the absence of nitrates and chlorine. They are used both when digging the earth before planting, and when feeding the bushes.

Ammofoska, it contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and also trace elements - potassium, sulfur, magnesium. Fertilizer increases the resistance of tomatoes to diseases and with its help the bushes grow fully.

Diammofoska - in addition to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, it contains 8 more microelements, including zinc, iron, manganese. Very suitable for greenhouses.

Nitroammofoska - These are granules consisting of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium.

Nitrofoska, contains all 3 macronutrients necessary for tomato care: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Suitable for all types of land, stimulates the growth and development of plants.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies in most cases are also suitable for other vegetables - peppers, cucumbers. You need to add and put fertilizers in the amount indicated in the description.

Iodine

Iodine helps tomatoes ripen more quickly, they are also sprayed with plants to prevent late blight.

Place 4 drops of alcohol-infused iodine in a ten-liter bucket of water. Fertilize with 2 liters of liquid per bush.

Ash

Wood ash contains large amounts of potassium and phosphorus... For feeding, pour 1 glass of folk remedy into a ten-liter bucket of water, and then pour it under the roots of each bush.

You can make foliar top dressing with ash. To cook it, pour 300 g of ash in 3 liters of water and boil for half an hour. Then leave it on for 5 hours. Then pour in another 7 liters of water. Add a little grated laundry soap to the composition, then it will stick to the leaves. Next, strain the solution and spray the leaves and stems with it.

Banana peel

The banana peel contains a lot of potassium... Put the skins of 2-3 bananas in a 3 liter jar, top up with warm water. Leave for 3 days at home, strain and pour under the bushes. You need to water without getting on the leaves.

Eggshell

Finely crush the shell of 3-4 eggs, pour into a 3 liter jar, top up with warm water, cover with a lid and set in the dark for 3 days. When the composition becomes cloudy and smells unpleasant, you can use it for watering.

Organic fertilizers

Chicken droppings

Poultry manure contains large amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen.

To fertilize tomatoes, pour 1/3 of the bird droppings into a ten-liter bucket, add water to the top. It needs to be cooked and left on the street for 7-10 days. Next, dilute the infusion with another 200 liters of water. Pour the solution between the rows, pouring 5-6 liters per 1 m².

Make sure the chicken solution gets into under the roots, and not splashing on the leaves, as this may cause burns.

Manure

Take a ten-liter bucket, fill half a bucket with manure, for example, horse manure, add water, cover with a lid, leave for 7 days in a warm place. After the infusion, stir, add another 100 liters of water to get a weak solution. Pour half a liter under the bush.

What is green manure

Make an infusion of young nettle leaves, they have a huge amount of potassium, iron, nitrogen. Pour nettle into a container 2/3, add water, cover with a lid. Prepare and leave warm for 7-10 days to ferment the nettle. Next, dilute each liter of infusion with ten liters of water.

Pour 1 liter under the bush. You can replace the nettle with any fresh young herb, for example, dandelion, alfalfa. In a month, you can make 2 feeding with infusion of green fertilizer.

Foliar feeding

Plants absorb nutrients from the soil through the roots, and nutrients are absorbed by plants through the leaves. Therefore, foliar feeding is so important, because through the leaves all the necessary substances very quickly penetrate into the cells, they do not need time to dissolve in the ground. Foliar dressing is very effective for weakened seedlings.

In this way, the bushes are fed once a week or once every 6 days. Pour 10-15 g of carbamide, 15 g of potassium sulfate, 19 g of superphosphate into a ten-liter bucket of water. Spray the leaves and stems of the tomatoes with the solution.

Standard scheme for applying additives under bushes

Top dressing is done up to 6 times... Tomatoes are fertilized only early in the morning or late in the evening.

Top dressing is combined with watering and subsequent loosening of the soil.

Top dressing of tomatoes in the open field

  • If seedlings stunted, then 3-4 days after planting it, pour it with a solution of urea, dissolving 1 tbsp. spoon in a ten-liter bucket of water. Water the seedlings at the root.
  • 21 days after transplanting seedlings into open ground, pour 0.5 liters of mullein and add 1 tbsp. spoon of urea in a ten-liter bucket of water. Water the bushes with the composition.
  • When tomatoes bloom, then feed them potassium or ash. Dig holes along the beds, pour ash there, and then bury them. At the same time, pour a solution of bird droppings by dissolving half a liter in a ten-liter bucket of water.
  • When whole brushes of flowers appear, feed the bushes with sodium humate. 2 weeks after feeding with humate, make a superphosphate solution. Pour a bucket of mortar over 1 m².
  • Make 2 more dressings during the formation of fruits, use potassium and phosphorus.

In the greenhouse

  • A week after planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse or polycarbonate greenhouse in the spring, make a solution by adding 2 teaspoons of carbamide and 2 teaspoons of ammonium nitrate to a ten-liter bucket of water.
  • 2 weeks after the first feeding, add potassium sulfate to 10 liters of water.
  • Wait another 5 days and do 3 feeding from 2 tbsp. tablespoons of ash, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and 15 liters of water.
  • When the bushes bloom, then spray them with the composition: add 2 teaspoons of sodium humate, 3 tbsp. tablespoons of nitrophoska in a ten-liter bucket of water. Pour 5 liters per square meter.
  • When vegetables start to pour, then feed under the root with potassium and phosphorus.

Fertilizers

For tomato and pepper seedlings

Pour 1-3 ml of iodine into a ten-liter bucket of water. Pour in 1 liter of milk or fermented kefir. Such a composition increases the amount of harvest and improves its quality.

Pour half a liter of solution under the roots of one bush. After watering with iodine solution, be sure to pour the bushes with clean, settled water at a temperature of 22 degrees.

Yeast

  1. Pour a bag of dry instant yeast and 2 tbsp. tablespoons of granulated sugar, mix, add a little water. After the mixture, pour into a ten-liter bucket of water. Pour half a liter of the composition onto the bush.
  2. Fill a 3-liter jar 2/3 with brown bread. Dissolve 100 g of yeast in water and add to the jar so that it is completely full. The bank should stand in a warm room for 3-5 days. Next, strain the composition through cheesecloth. Dilute the composition by pouring in another 30 liters of water. Pour half a liter of solution under a young bush, and 2 liters under an adult bush.

Yeast does not contain macro- and microelements, because of this, they only stimulate plant growth.

Seasonal per hole

When digging the earth, first scatter 1-2 buckets of compost per 1 m², and then dig up the earth.

Pour 1 tbsp into each hole before planting. spoonful of ash. And one more of the following fertilizers: 20 g of "Universal" fertilizer or 50 g of superphosphate. But you can instead pour 100 g of fertilizer into each well. Biohumus.

But fresh manure cannot be brought into the holes at all, as it can burn the roots.

When digging holes for seedlings, they are made 20 cm deep, but the distance between them is left depending on which variety you are going to plant. For undersized varieties, indent 20-30 cm, and for tall 70-90 cm.

Top dressing with a variety of fertilizers helps to properly grow and develop the stems and leaves of tomatoes. They help to bloom more abundantly and promote the formation of more ovaries. When applying dressings, the fruits ripen faster, acquire a better taste.


Recipes for feeding tomatoes with yeast in a greenhouse and soil

For amateur gardeners who grow tomatoes for personal consumption, the ecological purity of the fruits obtained, the absence of nitrates and other harmful substances in them, is of great importance. Consider the features of feeding tomatoes with yeast, recipes for means and feeding schemes in a greenhouse and open field.

To obtain a high yield of any agricultural crops, the soil for planting them must be well fertilized with substances containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other necessary trace elements. However, for a number of plants, such an initial content of nutrients in the soil is not enough to develop well and form full-fledged fruits.

The intensity of soil depletion is clearly seen on the example of growing tomatoes, which, in a short life cycle, need to “pull out” a large amount of nutrients from each square meter in order to grow sufficient green mass (stems and leaves) and several tens of kilograms of fruits.

The experience of cultivating this crop has shown a great dependence of its yield on correct and timely feeding. The compositions of these dressings must necessarily include:

  • basic substances such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (separately in each feeding or in combination),
  • as well as specific ones, for example, iodine and boron.

Why the last trace elements are needed will be explained later.

Top dressing recipes based on natural products and allowing to achieve the specified purity with the simultaneous achievement of high yields will be discussed in this article.


Correct feeding is an important condition for the development of tomatoes

Any plant, including a tomato, at different stages of development, consumes nutrients in different quantities. For example, an actively growing tomato needs an increased amount of nitrogen, and in the budding and fruiting phase, a constant supply of potassium.

Only with an accurate knowledge of the needs of the culture at a certain period of development, it is possible to make a balanced top dressing, which will not harm the bushes, but, on the contrary, will provide them with the necessary nutrition.

All feeding of tomatoes should be carried out in a strictly defined order.

Randomly introducing one or another substance under the bushes can provoke its excess or deficiency.

As a result of improperly carried out dressings, tomatoes weaken and are easily affected by pests and diseases, the crop (if any) loses its varietal characteristics - even the largest-fruited hybrids can produce small unsightly tomatoes.


The better to fertilize tomatoes: effective feeding

Tomatoes have a large vegetative mass, an extended period of fruiting and absorption of nutrients, therefore, they consume a large amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Therefore, a good harvest depends on complete mineral nutrition, which is impossible without macro- and microelements: magnesium, boron, zinc, calcium, copper, iron, manganese and molybdenum. It's no secret that these elements contribute to a better assimilation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and increase the culture's resistance to diseases and adverse weather conditions.

Seed treatment. If the seeds have not undergone pre-sowing treatment, then effectively treat them with one of the following drugs, including Extrasol, Hydromix and Radifarm.

Transplanting. There are at least several options for feeding and stimulating the growth and development of the root system.

One of them is to feed the tomatoes with Extrasol fertilizer to block all pathogens and stimulate plant growth.

The second option, how to fertilize tomatoes - El-1 preparation for better survival and enhanced development of the root system at the rate of 1 ampoule per 10 liters of water, water 0.25 liters per 1 plant before planting.

An even more effective way is to use Radifarm (targeted biostimulant) for the development of the root system. After planting, water the seedlings with Radifarm solution (300 ml / 100 l) of water under the root on moist soil at the rate of 0.5 l per plant. After a week, repeat the treatment with a half dose of the drug. In the presence of drip irrigation, Radifarm is applied according to the same scheme.

And how to fertilize tomatoes when using drip irrigation? In this case, for the organization of mineral nutrition, ammonium nitrate, carbamide, Kemirov fertilizers (Kemira Kombi, Kemira Hydro and others), Masters and Terraflexs are used.

With a lack of phosphorus for feeding tomatoes in the soil and greenhouse, the fertilizer Master yellow (13 - 40 - 13 + micro) is used, as well as potassium monophosphate and phosphoric acid.

With a lack of potassium, Master Crista (9 - 0 - 46 + micro), Master brown (3-11-38 + 4 + micro), potassium nitrate are recommended.

Leaf dressing. In the early phases, before flowering, mineral fertilizers Master Special (18-18-18), or Kemira Leaf NPK (18-18-18 + ME) are applied at a dose of 20 g / 100 sq. m, or Plantafol (20-20-20 + micro) at a dose of 100 g / 100 sq. m. The latter is well combined with plant protection products, stimulates their growth, softens the stress effect of adverse conditions and pesticide load, increases the coefficient of absorption of nutrients from the soil.

Effectively, together with the Master, for feeding tomatoes in the open field and in the greenhouse, use Megafol (biostimulant-antidepressant) at a dose of 3 ml per 100 sq. m or Extrasol at a dose of 200 ml per 100 sq. m.

At the beginning of flowering tomatoes for better fertilization of flowers, in order to avoid their shedding, to increase the brushes, to prevent the disease of tomato apical rot, it is advisable to treat tomatoes with one of the following drugs: Novosil, MK "Greenhouse", EL-1, Boroplus (organic boron compound -10 ml) + Calbit C (20-30 g per 10 l of water) or Organo-boron. It is recommended to repeat the treatment after 10 days. With the onset of dry hot weather in the future, 10 days after the last treatment, it is necessary to carry out the third treatment with Calbit C. In addition, domestic preparations Tomaton and Ovary are successfully used for better fruit setting.

At the beginning of the ripening of tomatoes, apply the NPK Master (3-ll-38 + Mg4 + + micro) for spraying at a dose of 20-30 g / 100 sq. m or Leaf (10-5-40 + ME) with the addition of Estrasol to them at a dose of 10 ml / 100 sq. m.

Biostimulants in drip irrigation systems for feeding tomatoes in open ground and greenhouses are used more intensively. For a better development of the root system and an increase in soil activity, Viva is introduced at the rate of 100 ml for every 100 sq. m, in 15-20 days. The next repetition of the application is when an ovary is formed on the first hand, and then every 25 days at the same dose.


Fertilizing with yeast fertilizers in the greenhouse

Watering and spraying in the greenhouse should occur in the first half of the day. In the evening and at night, the leaf should be dry. The best time to work in a greenhouse with yeast solution is on a cloudy day. there will be no large evaporation and all nutrients will go into the soil.

Top dressing for tomatoes with ash

  • 10 g dry yeast
  • 0.5 liters of chicken manure extract
  • 0.5 liters of ash (in a can)
  • 5 tbsp. l. Sahara.

We mix all the ingredients. We dilute the concentrate in a ratio of 1:10.

Top dressing of tomatoes - yeast with sugar

  • 100 g yeast
  • 2 tbsp. l. Sahara
  • Water.

Add yeast and sugar to 10 liters of water. After 3 hours, dilute the concentrate to 50 liters of the mixture.

Top dressing of tomatoes with nettles with yeast

  • Nettle
  • 100 g yeast
  • Rusks or bread
  • 200 liters of water.

We mix everything and insist for 5 days. We dilute the concentrated mixture before use. To do this, dilute every two liters of infusion with five liters of water.


Seedling care

To ensure adequate nutrition you can water young plants with an ash extract. This is done no more than twice during the entire period of "home" growth.

Another the way of feeding young plants is a yeast solution. You can prepare it as follows:

In 5 liters of water, 5 grams of bread yeast are diluted, and left for one day. Then the seedlings are fed with this suspension, but not more often than once during the entire period of growth. It is impossible to store the resulting mixture for more than 2 days.

You can also use fast-acting yeast as a fertilizer for tomatoes. A mixture of them is done like this:

One bag of yeast and two tablespoons of sugar are poured into a glass of warm water, mixed, waiting for complete dissolution. Insist 2 hours, and the resulting working solution is added during watering at the rate of 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water.


What threatens the lack and excess of fertilizer

Compliance with the dosage is a prerequisite for feeding tomatoes to bring the desired effect. It is possible to determine that a plant is experiencing problems with mineral substances by its external signs. This can be shown graphically as follows:

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Element Shortage symptom Sign of excess
Nitrogen Growth retardation, light color of leaves, their underdevelopment, premature wilting Dark saturated color of leaves while delaying flowering and ripening
Phosphorus Dark green leaves with a bluish tint, brown spots on the leaf Interveinal chlorosis on leaves, premature aging of the plant
Potassium Bluish green with a bronze tint, leaf color, thin and loose stem, growth retardation Shredding of leaves, the appearance of spots

To avoid these negative phenomena, in addition to observing the dosage, it is necessary to buy only well-proven fertilizers from trusted manufacturers, use more complex fertilizers for tomatoes in a greenhouse with the addition of microelements and study well the composition of the soil in your region and on a specific site where tomatoes will be grown.

Summing up, it can be emphasized that growing tomatoes, although a troublesome job, but subject to the necessary rules, can bring real pleasure from the results of your labor.


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